Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be found in a variety of tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and even cord blood. MSCs have the ability to differentiate into a number of different cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and adipocytes. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of sources and expanded in culture. Once isolated, they can be administered via IV infusion. IV infusion of MSCs is a relatively simple procedure. A small volume of MSCs is injected into a vein, typically in the arm. The MSCs then circulate through the body and home in on areas of injury or disease. The exact dosage of MSCs required for IV infusion depends on a number of factors, including the patient's weight, the condition being treated, and the desired outcome. In general, a higher dose of MSCs is required for more severe conditions. The most common dose range for IV infusion of MSCs is between 1 and 10 million cells per kilogram of body weight. IV infusion of MSCs is a promising treatment for a variety of conditions, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis. MSCs have the ability to reduce inflammation, promote tissue regeneration, and modulate the immune system. A number of clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of IV infusion of MSCs in humans.