Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and Herpes

 

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be found in many tissues throughout the body, including the bone marrow, adipose tissue, and even the umbilical cord. MSCs have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and adipocytes. In recent years, MSCs have also been shown to have the ability to fight viral infections, specifically the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV is a double-stranded DNA virus that is classified into two types: HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 is the most common type of HSV and is typically associated with orolabial infections, while HSV-2 is typically associated with genital infections. Both types of HSV are highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with an infected individual, as well as through indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. HSV infections are characterized by the development of vesicles, which are small, fluid-filled blisters, on the skin or mucous membranes. These vesicles eventually rupture and release the HSV virus into the surrounding tissue, where it begins to replicate. The HSV virus then travels through the nervous system to the dorsal root ganglia, where it remains latent for the rest of the individual's life. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and travel back down the nerve to the surface of the skin, causing a new outbreak of vesicles. While HSV infections are generally mild and self-limiting, they can cause significant morbidity and even mortality in certain populations. Neonates and immunocompromised individuals are particularly at risk for developing severe HSV infections. Neonatal HSV infection can lead to disseminated infection, which can be fatal in up to 80% of cases. In immunocompromised individuals, HSV can cause life-threatening encephalitis or esophagitis. There is currently no cure for HSV infections and no vaccine available to prevent HSV infections. Treatment is focused on relieving symptoms and preventing secondary bacterial infections. The development of effective antiviral therapies for HSV infections has been hampered by the fact that HSV can establish latency in the nervous system, making it difficult to target with drugs. In addition, HSV is able to mutate and develop resistance to antiviral drugs rapidly. There is therefore a pressing need for new and innovative antiviral therapies for HSV infections. MSCs have emerged as a potential new treatment for HSV infections. MSCs have been shown to possess antiviral activity against a variety of viruses, including HSV-1 and HSV-2. In vitro, MSCs have been shown to inhibit HSV replication by producing interferon-beta and other antiviral cytokines. In addition, MSCs have been shown to kill HSV-infected cells directly. In vivo, MSCs have been shown to protect mice from HSV-1-induced mortality. MSCs have also been shown to ameliorate HSV-induced skin lesions in mice. The mechanism by which MSCs exert their antiviral activity against HSV is not fully understood. However, it is thought that MSCs may work by stimulating the immune system to better fight the virus. In addition, MSCs may directly kill HSV-infected cells through the production of antiviral cytokines or by inducing apoptosis. The use of MSCs as an antiviral therapy for HSV infections is still in the early stages of development. However, the results of preclinical studies are promising and suggest that MSCs may represent a new and effective treatment for HSV infections.

 "Mesenchymal stem cells are susceptible to human herpesviruses ...." https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16604097/. Accessed 24 Oct. 2022.

 "Preventive Vaccination with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protects Mice ...." 16 Dec. 2021, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8675305/. Accessed 24 Oct. 2022.

 "Susceptibility of Human Placenta Derived Mesenchymal Stromal ...." 5 Aug. 2013, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0071412. Accessed 24 Oct. 2022.

The information below is the recommended stem cell therapy protocol for this condition 

Route of AdministrationDoseTime (Days)Total Cells
IV50,000,0003150,000,000
Myers cocktail/NAD50,000,0001N/A
Corpus Cavernosum


50,000,000150,000,000
Total200,000,000