Hamstrings and Stem Cells

The hamstrings are a group of three muscles in the posterior thigh that work together to flex the knee and extend the hip. The hamstrings are the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The biceps femoris has two heads, a long head, and a short head. The long head originates from the ischial tuberosity and the short head originates from the linea aspera on the femur. The semitendinosus and semimembranosus both originate from the ischial tuberosity. All three muscles insert on the tibia via the common tendon of the hamstrings. The biceps femoris also has a tendon that inserts on the fibula. The hamstrings are responsible for knee flexion and hip extension. Knee flexion occurs when the hamstrings contract and shorten, pulling the tibia toward the femur. Hip extension occurs when the hamstrings contract and lengthen, pulling the femur backward. The hamstrings are commonly injured in athletes, especially in those who participate in sports that require a lot of running and jumping. Hamstring strains are classified as first, second, or third-degree, depending on the severity of the injury. A first-degree hamstring strain is a minor injury with some pain and tenderness. A second-degree hamstring strain is a more severe injury with pain, tenderness, and bruising. A third-degree hamstring strain is the most severe type of injury, with a complete tear of the muscle. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be found in many tissues, including the bone marrow, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue. MSCs have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myocytes. MSCs can be isolated from a patient's tissue and expanded in culture. Once expanded, MSCs can be injected back into the patient to treat a variety of diseases and injuries. MSCs have been used to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis, and muscle injuries. MSCs can also be used to generate tissue-engineered constructs for use in regenerative medicine. Tissue-engineered constructs are created by seeded MSCs onto a biodegradable scaffold. The MSCs proliferate and differentiate into the desired cell type, and the construct is then implanted into the patient. Tissue-engineered constructs have been used to treat conditions such as cartilage defects and heart failure. The use of MSCs in treating hamstring injuries is a promising area of research. MSCs have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types, including myocytes. This makes them ideal for use in regenerative medicine. MSCs can be injected into the site of a hamstring injury to promote healing. MSCs can also be used to generate tissue-engineered constructs for use in repairing damaged tissue. There are a few clinical trials that have been conducted using MSCs to treat hamstring injuries. One trial showed that the injection of MSCs into the site of a biceps femoris tendon injury improved healing and reduced pain. Another trial showed that the injection of MSCs into the site of a semitendinosus tendon injury improved healing and reduced pain.

 

 "Biceps Femoris Tendonitis Stem Cell: Hamstring Treatment." 5 Feb. 2021, https://centenoschultz.com/biceps-femoris-tendonitis-stem-cell-treatment/. Accessed 24 Oct. 2022.

 "Hamstring Injury & Regenerative Therapy - Medica Stem Cells." https://medicastemcells.com/hamstring-injury-stem-cell-therapy/. Accessed 24 Oct. 2022.

 "Platelet-rich plasma for hamstring injuries - Darrow Stem Cell Institute." https://stemcellinstitute2.com/platelet-rich-plasma-hamstring-injuries/. Accessed 24 Oct. 2022.

The information below is the recommended stem cell therapy protocol for this condition 

Route of AdministrationDoseTime (Days)Total Cells
IV50,000,0003150,000,000
Myers cocktail/NAD50,000,0001N/A
Hamstring tendon50,000,000150,000,000
Total200,000,000