Osteomyelitis and Stem Cells

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Osteomyelitis is a bone infection that can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms. The infection can spread to the surrounding tissues and cause significant damage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including bone cells. MSCs have been shown to be effective in treating osteomyelitis in animal models. The exact cause of osteomyelitis is not always known, but it is often associated with a break in the skin or a surgical procedure. The bacteria that most commonly cause osteomyelitis are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Osteomyelitis can also be caused by fungi, such as Candida albicans, or by other microorganisms. Symptoms of osteomyelitis include pain, swelling, and redness at the site of infection. The affected area may be warm to the touch. The infection can spread to the surrounding tissues and cause fever, chills, and fatigue. If the infection spreads to the blood, it can be life-threatening. Osteomyelitis is diagnosed with a physical examination, X-rays, and blood tests. The affected area may be drained of pus and cultured for bacteria. A bone biopsy may also be done to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of osteomyelitis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. The affected area may also be drained of pus. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected bone or tissue. MSCs have been shown to be effective in treating osteomyelitis in animal models. MSCs are able to migrate to the site of infection and differentiate into bone-forming cells. This results in the formation of new, healthy bone tissue. MSCs have also been shown to modulate the immune response. This helps to reduce the inflammation that is associated with osteomyelitis. In a study of rats with osteomyelitis, MSCs were injected into the site of infection. The rats were then treated with antibiotics. The rats that received MSCs had a significantly higher survival rate than the rats that did not receive MSCs. A clinical trial is currently underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MSCs in the treatment of human patients with osteomyelitis. The results of this trial will help to determine whether MSCs are a safe and effective treatment for this condition.

 "Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells offer an immune-privileged ...." 1 Jan. 2022, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34678484/. Accessed 21 Oct. 2022.

 "Adipose‐Derived Stromal Cells Are Capable of Restoring Bone ...." 10 Jun. 2019, https://stemcellsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/sctm.18-0266. Accessed 21 Oct. 2022.

 "Mesenchymal stromal cell implantation for stimulation of long bone ...." https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25805108/. Accessed 21 Oct. 2022.

The information below is the recommended stem cell therapy protocol for this condition 

Route of AdministrationDoseTime (Days)Total Cells
IV50,000,0003150,000,000
Myers cocktail/NAD50,000,0001N/A
Local50,000,000150,000,000
Total200,000,000