Alzheimer’s Disease and Stem Cells

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of cognitive function and dementia. Early onset and familial forms of the disease are associated with mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) genes, and most sporadic cases are thought to be due to the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aβ peptides are generated by the proteolytic cleavage of APP by β- and γ-secretases. PS1 is a component of the γ-secretase complex, which cleaves the APP C-terminus within the Aβ region to release Aβ peptides. The predominant Aβ peptide in the brain is Aβ42, which is prone to aggregation and is a major component of senile plaques, the histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A small number of patients with early onset familial Alzheimer's disease have been found to have mutations in the tau gene, which encodes the microtubule-associated protein tau. Tau is a phosphoprotein that is a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, another histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to these genetic causes of Alzheimer's disease, a number of environmental and lifestyle factors have been implicated in the development of the disease, including head injury, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. The precise cause of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors, including Aβ toxicity, tau pathology, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Aβ is thought to be toxic to neurons due to its ability to promote oxidative stress and inflammation, and to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity that is important for learning and memory. Tau pathology is thought to be toxic to neurons due to its ability to promote microtubule destabilization and to induce the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation is thought to contribute to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease by promoting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and by activating microglia, resident immune cells in the brain. The role of stem cells in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is currently under investigation. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into a variety of cell types. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. ESCs are pluripotent, meaning that they have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body. This makes them attractive for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, as they have the potential to replace lost neurons and to restore cognitive function. However, the use of ESCs is controversial, as it involves the destruction of human embryos. Adult stem cells are multipotent, meaning that they can differentiate into a limited number of cell types. Adult stem cells can be found in the brain, and they have been shown to be capable of differentiating into neurons. However, the number of stem cells in the brain is very limited, and it is unclear whether they are able to replace lost neurons and restore cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease. A number of clinical trials are currently underway to test the efficacy of stem cell therapy in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. One trial is using autologous peripheral blood stem cells, which are adult stem cells that are obtained from the patient's own blood. The stem cells are then injected into the patient's brain. Another trial is using ESCs that have been derived from unused embryos from in vitro fertilization clinics. The stem cells are then injected into the patient's brain. The use of stem cells in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is a promising but controversial approach. Further research is needed to determine whether stem cells are able to replace lost neurons and to restore cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

 "Stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease - PMC - NCBI." https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477654/. Accessed 20 Oct. 2022.

 "Stem Cell Therapy for Alzheimer's." https://www.dvcstem.com/post/stem-cell-therapy-for-alzheimers. Accessed 20 Oct. 2022.

 "Alzheimer's Society's view on stem cell research." https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-us/policy-and-influencing/what-we-think/stem-cell-research. Accessed 20 Oct. 2022.

The information below is the recommended stem cell therapy protocol for this condition 

Route of AdministrationDoseTime (Days)Total Cells
IV50,000,0003150,000,000
Intrathecal50,000,000150,000,000
Vitamins (Myers cocktail/NAD)1N/A
Total200,000,000