Cytokines What Are They?

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Cytokines are proteins that are secreted by cells in the immune system in response to a stimulus. They are important mediators of the immune response, and can be either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Cytokines can be secreted by a variety of cells, including macrophages, T-cells, and B-cells. They are involved in a wide range of immune responses, including the regulation of inflammation, the activation of immune cells, and the generation of immunity to infections.

Cytokines are important regulators of the immune response, and their dysregulation can lead to a variety of diseases. The first cytokines were discovered in the early 20th century, and their role in the immune response was first elucidated in the 1970s. Since then, the study of cytokines has been an important area of research in immunology. There are a large number of different cytokines, and they are classified according to their structure and function. The most important cytokines are the interleukins, which are a family of cytokines that regulate the activity of the immune system. Other important cytokines include the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines, which are involved in the regulation of inflammation, and the interferons, which are involved in the generation of immunity to viral infections.

Cytokines are important mediators of the immune response, and their dysregulation can lead to a variety of diseases. Cytokine storms, in which there is excessive production of cytokines, can lead to a variety of serious diseases, including sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and arthritis. Cytokine therapy is a promising new treatment for a variety of diseases and is currently being tested in clinical trials for a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infections.