History of Stem Cells

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There are four main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, cord blood stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Embryonic stem cells come from early-stage embryos that are just a few days old. These cells have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the human body. Adult stem cells are found in various tissues throughout the body. They can give rise to the specific cell type found in the tissue in which they reside. For example, blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow give rise to different types of blood cells. Cord blood stem cells are found in the blood of the umbilical cord and placenta. These cells can give rise to all the cell types of the blood, but they are less versatile than other types of stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells are created in the laboratory from adult cells. These cells have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the human body.

The first stem cells used for clinical purposes were bone marrow stem cells, which were used in the 1950s to treat leukemia. In the 1960s, stem cells from cord blood were used to treat certain blood disorders. In the 1970s, researchers began to investigate the use of stem cells from other tissues, such as the brain and the liver, for treating different diseases. In the 1980s, the first stem cell transplant was performed using stem cells from a person's own body. In the 1990s, researchers began to investigate the use of stem cells from animal sources, such as mice, for treating human diseases. In the 2000s, the first stem cell therapy using stem cells from embryonic stem cells was performed.

What are stem cells?

Stem cells are cells that have the ability to differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of themselves.

What are the three main categories of stem cells?

The three main types of stem cells are totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent stem cells. Totipotent stem cells can develop into any type of cell in the body. Pluripotent stem cells can develop into any type of cell except for those that make up the placenta. Multipotent stem cells can develop into a limited number of cell types.

Where do stem cells come from?

Stem cells come from a variety of sources, including embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells

Embryonic stem cells are cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, which is an early-stage embryo. These cells are pluripotent, meaning that they have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body.

Adult stem cells

Adult Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells. Adult stem cells are found in various tissues in the body, including the brain, bone marrow, skin, and muscles. They play an important role in repairing damaged tissues and maintaining the health of the tissues in which they are found.

Mesenchymal stem cells

Mesenchymal stem cells are a type of adult stem cell that can be found in many tissues throughout the body, including the bone marrow. These cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), and adipocytes (fat cells).

Wharton's jelly is a substance in the umbilical cord that contains mesenchymal stem cells.

Placental stem cells

Placental stem cells are a type of cell that is derived from the placenta. These cells have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types, including:

• Placental macrophages

• Placental T cells

• Placental B cells

• Placental endothelial cells

• Placental epithelial cells

Placental stem cells are believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the placenta, as well as in the immune response to infections.

The umbilical cord is a tube of connective tissue that carries nutrients and oxygen to the fetus from the placenta. The placenta is a temporary organ that develops during pregnancy and provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. It also eliminates waste products from the fetus. The stem cells in the umbilical cord and placenta are responsible for the development of the fetus.

Induced pluripotent stem cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated from adult cells. The term "induced" refers to the fact that these cells have been induced to become pluripotent, meaning they have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body.

How are stem cells used for musculoskeletal pain?

Stem cells are used for musculoskeletal pain in a number of ways. First, they can be used to repair damaged tissue. Second, they can be used to stimulate the growth of new tissue. Finally, they can be used to modulate the immune system to reduce inflammation.